• Gap Analysis

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    Gap analysis is a way of mapping different areas of biodiversity for researchers and conservationists to detect potentially endangered species as well as other political, ecological, and demographic features of the same region. Gap analysis is incredibly helpful for discovering the effectiveness of current conservation efforts as well as determining […]

  • Rivers that Flow Backwards

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    Rivers don’t always flow in the same direction. Read about how the Amazon once flowed east to west and how the strength of Hurricane Isaac once change the course of the Mississippi river.

  • Coloring Maps

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    These coloring maps are great educational tools to help kids learn about geography.  These printable PDF maps allow children to learn about the countries found within Europe, South and Central America, and Africa.  There is also a PDF coloring map covering the fifty states in the United States.  Lastly, there […]

  • Geography of Thanksgiving

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    The first recorded Thanksgiving in the United States occurred in 1621 and was spread out over three days.  The event was held in the fall to celebrate that year’s bountiful harvest, a tradition that the early pilgrims brought with them from England.  On October 3, 1863, marking Thanksgiving as a national […]

  • Mapping Digital Attacks Around the World

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    Every day, thousands of digital attacks are happening around the globe.  The site Digital Attack Maps shows the leading Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks happening at the moment.  The data is consolidated from more than 270 ISP customers who have agreed to anonymously share their network traffic and attack statistics.  The data […]

Physical Geography

Theory of Island Biogeography illustrated in a graph. Graph: Wikipedia.

Island Biogeography

The biogeography of islands is a fascinating topic that extends to more than just island locations. The ‘island’ part of ‘island biogeography’ can refer to actual islands as well as isolated areas such as mountaintops, valleys, and other secluded spaces of unique biodiversity. These areas, surrounded by unsuitable habitat, often […]

Monthly 700 hPa vertical velocity anomalies (Pa/s) from October of 1933 through March of 1934, calculated from the 20th Century Reanalysis. All anomalies are calculated relative to the baseline period of 1931–1990.

New Study Discovers the Worst Drought of the Millennium Occurred in 1934

According to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the worst drought of the last thousand years occurred in 1934 at the height of the Dust Bowl and Great Depression. Scientists from NASA and the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory found that 1934 had the driest and most widespread drought in a […]

Water on Earth

Water on Earth

The earth contains about 1.36 billion tons of water.  This water is in constant motion, cycling through the earth’s water circulation system, moving through the oceans, the air, the land, and back again. The great majority of the earth’s water is contained in the oceans, seas, and bays with 96.5% […]

Human Geography

Showing North Koreans a picture on a tourist's camera. Photo: Roman Harak.

Tourism in North Korea

Anyone who has ever caught the travel bug probably understands the allure of the places not many Western travelers get to go, places like Iran, Cuba, and North Korea. Whether this is a reaction to the idea that we aren’t welcome or simply aren’t allowed in, many people go out […]

Pedestrian crossing in Tokyo.


Megacities are metropolitan areas that have 10 million or more residents.

Graph of changes in population for France (red) and Japan (blue). Graph: Ryan Chew.

Why is the Population of Japan Almost Double That of France?

Different countries around the world vary in cultures, populations and traditions, which helps make up the wonderfully diverse world we live in. What are the factors that contribute to such a wide variety of facts about each country, though? There are many ways to think of each individual culture and […]

Geography News

On Sept. 19, 2014, the five-day average of Antarctic sea ice extent exceeded 20 million square kilometers for the first time since 1979, according to the National Snow and Ice Data Center. The red line shows the average maximum extent from 1979-2014. Image Credit: NASA's Scientific Visualization Studio/Cindy Starr

New Record Extent of Sea Ice in Antarctica

The polar regions of the Earth, the Arctic Ocean and Antarctica, are of particular concern to scientists and researchers. In one sense, these areas act much like an air conditioner for the planet because of their cold, icy environments and the fact that like they reflect a high degree of […]

The far left map is the original hand-drawn map, which was used to make the two printed version on the right which were used by Napoleon and his army at Waterloo. In the original map, the Mont Saint-Jean farm is situated to the right of the road, while on the printed versions, the farm is shown as being to the left of the road.

Was an Inaccurate Map Partly Responsible for Napoleon’s Waterloo Defeat?

A French documentary maker contends that a map error ones on the reasons that Napoleon’s army was defeated by the Duke of Wellington’s forces during the Battle of Waterloo.  The documentary by Franck Ferrand entitled, “Napoléon : le défi de trop ?” explores the finding by Belgian illustrator and historian, Bernard […]

Map of the North Atlantic Ocean showing gravity anomalies. Marine gravity model of the North Atlantic (10 mGal contours). Red dots show locations of earthquakes with magnitude > 5.5 and they highlight the present-day location of the seafloor spreading ridges and transform faults. This gravity information shows the details of the plate tectonic history of the rifting of these continents including the subtle signatures of fracture zones that are currently buried by sediment.

An Ocean of Mountains

The ocean comprises a significant portion of the Earth yet it remains a field we know the least about. Humans know more about the topography of Mars than we do about the ocean floor, and our poor knowledge of seabed topography is demonstrated by the ongoing search for missing Malaysia […]

Geography 101

Times Square by Bert Monroy.

Bert Monroy – An Artist at the Intersection of Geography and Art

As a geographer and photographer, I am always interested in the intersection of art and geography. Many artists rely on digital images and maps of places they may not have ever seen, or visited only once. Bert Monroy is a digital photo-realist artist based in Berkeley, CA. A lifelong artist […]

Continents and Population Density

Continents and Population Density

The worksheet below is aimed towards helping elementary school students uses graphs to learn about the different continents and the population density of each continent (printable version of this lesson about continents and population). The chart below shows the size and population of each continent and should be used to […]



Direction is the pathway along which an object is moving.  Direction is also the location of a feature based on the position of another feature. Definitions of Direction Cardinal Directions and Ordinal Directions Learn about the four points of the compass. Geocentric Direction Systems Not all culture understand direction the […]


Small scale map showing Chicago (upper map) and a large scale map showing a neighborhood in Chicago (lower map).


Maps are a graphical representation of the world or a section of the world.  As a representation of the world, maps are compressed versions of the real world meaning that a large piece of land is recreated onto a smaller piece of paper or digital file.  The relationship between the […]

Imago Mundi from Babylonia, 500 BCE.

The Oldest Known Map of the World

The oldest known world map is the Babylonian Map of the World known as the Imago Mundi.  This map dates back to the 5th century BCE. This map, found in southern Iraq in a city called Sippar, shows a small bit of the known world as the Babylonians knew it centuries […]


GPS sites showing the measured displacement. As the drought deepens in March of 2014, the red dots showed the greatest uplift in the Sierra Mountains. Source: Borsa et al.

Tracking the Effects of Drought in the Western U.S. with GPS

The effects of the drought that has stricken the western United States can be measured with GPS.  As anyone who has lugged around a one gallon bottle of water knows, water is heavy.  Erosion is not the only way that rivers and lakes affect the landscape, now researchers from the Scripps […]

Find Your Way Downstream with Streamer

Find Your Way Downstream with Streamer

Water is essential for life on the planet, and tool from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) makes it easy and fun to trace water flow across the United States from your own computer. The device is called Streamer, and with only a few clicks, users can follow major water ways from […]

Help Find Invasive Weeds in Hawaii

Help Find Invasive Weeds in Hawaii

Tomnod, which previously helped with crowdsourcing the search for the missing Malaysian Airlines flight, has teamed up with the Nature Conservancy to map the location of Australian Tree Ferns and African Tulip Trees in order to better understand how these invasive plants are affecting native forests in Hawaii.  More than 80 percent […]

Geography Career

How Much do Geographers Make?

How Much do Geographers Make?

Geographers find work in a variety of disciplines both in the physical and human geography related fields.  Geographers are employed as cartographers, urban planners, climatologists, natural resource managers, and emergency management personnel; any industry requiring the development or analysis of geographic data will often have a geographer on staff.  The […]

What Can You do with a Degree in Geography?

What Can You do with a Degree in Geography?

Are you a geography major who is working in a job that allows you to apply your educational background?  Fill out the survey linked below.  All survey results will be consolidated and reported back once enough results have come in. Thanks, Caitlin Editor, Geo Lounge Fill out the survey: What […]

Meet a Geographer: Kristina Jacob

Meet a Geographer: Kristina Jacob

Kristina Jacob is a GIS professional working at a local city in Southern California as well as an avid photographer (her work can be found on her site, Kristina Jacob Photography).  She shares her thought about what drew her to both geography and photography.  Kristina has also shared some amazing […]

Geography Fun

Hong Kong from LANDCARPET.

LANDCARPET: Turning Satellite Imagery into Carpets

Florian Pucher loves to get a window seat whenever he flies so he can view the landscape below.  The Austrian architect who now lives in Beijing, China has turned that love into carpeting made form 100% New Zealand wool.  Pucher browses through satellite imagery to select views that will translate well onto […]

Aral Sea Continues to Shrink

Aral Sea Continues to Shrink

Once the  fourth-largest inland water body in the world, the Aral Sea shrank again this past year.  For the first time in modern history, the eastern lobe has completely dried out. While the the World Bank and Kazakhstan have collaborated to build the Kok-Aral dike which has helped to stabilize the northern […]

Geography Hall of Shame

Geography Hall of Shame

Listed here in alphabetical order by last name are some mind scratching geography quotes by celebrities and famous people.  Got a quote to add? Email it to editor@geolounge.com. Celebrity Geography Blunders I thought Europe was a country…Don’t they speak French there? Kellie Pickler, November 2007 appearance on “Are you Smarter Than a Fifth […]