Landlocked Countries

A country is considered landlocked when it is surrounded on all sides by one or more other countries and therefore has no direct access to a coastline providing access to the oceans.

How Many Countries are Landlocked?

There are currently 49 countries (including five partially recognized states) that are completely surrounded by at least one other country.  With the exception of two countries in South America (Bolivia and Paraguay) the rest of these countries are found in Africa, Europe, and Asia.

Landlocked by a Single Country

There are three countries that are completely landlocked (i.e. surrounded on all sides) by only country. Two of these countries are founded within the country of Italy.  These single-country landlocked countries are: Lesotho which is surrounded by South Africa, San Marino, a state surrounded by Italy, and Vatican City which is a city-state surrounded by Rome, the capitol city of Italy.  Countries that are landlocked by a single country are known as enclave countries.

Double-Landlocked Countries

Landlocked countries that are separated from the nearest ocean coastline but not one, but two countries, are known as double-landlocked or doubly-landlocked countries.  The first country that is double-landlocked is the microstate of Liechtenstein located in central Europe which is immediately surrounded by the landlocked countries of Austria and Switzerland.  The second country is located in central Asia, Uzbekistan which is surrounded by the landlocked countries of Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Turkmenistan. There are two defacto states with limited or no international recognition: South Ossetia and Transnistria.

Largest and Smallest Landlocked Countries

The largest landlocked country is Kazakhstan in Central Asia with a land area of over 2.7 million kilometers.  The smallest landlocked country is the city-state of Vatican City with an area of just 44 hectares (109 acres).

Map of Landlocked Countries, 2011 (outdated)

Map of landlocked countries. There are 42 landlocked (green) and two double-landlocked (purple) countries . Map: NuclearVacuum (Wikipedia)

Map of landlocked countries as of 2011. There are 42 landlocked (green) and two double-landlocked (purple) countries . Map: NuclearVacuum (Wikipedia)

List of Landlocked Countries

Country or TerritoryArea(km2)Surrounding countriesNumber of Surrounding Countries
Total14,776,228
Afghanistan652,230Iran, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, China, Pakistan6
Andorra468France, Spain2
Armenia[e]29,743Iran, Turkey, Georgia, Azerbaijan4
Austria83,871Germany, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Slovenia, Italy, Liechtenstein, Switzerland8
Azerbaijan[a]86,600Russia, Georgia, Armenia, Iran, Turkey4
Belarus207,600Poland, Lithuania, Russia, Ukraine, Latvia5
Bhutan38,394India, China2
Bolivia1,098,581Peru, Brazil, Chile, Argentina, Paraguay5
Botswana582,000Namibia, Zambia, Zimbabwe, South Africa4
Burkina Faso274,222Mali, Niger, Benin, Togo, Ghana, Ivory Coast6
Burundi27,834Rwanda, Tanzania, Democratic Republic of the Congo3
Central African Republic622,984Chad, Cameroon, Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Sudan, South Sudan6
Chad1,284,000Libya, Niger, Sudan, Central African Republic, Nigeria, Cameroon6
Czech Republic78,867Austria, Germany, Poland, Slovakia4
Ethiopia1,104,300Djibouti, Eritrea, Kenya, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan6
Hungary93,028Austria, Croatia, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Ukraine7
Kazakhstan[a]2,724,900China, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan5
Kosovo[c]10,908Albania, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia4
Kyrgyzstan199,951China, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan4
Laos236,800Myanmar, China, Vietnam, Cambodia, Thailand5
Lesotho[d]30,355South Africa1
Liechtenstein160Switzerland, Austria2
Luxembourg2,586Belgium, Germany, France3
Macedonia (F.Y.R.O.M.)25,713Kosovo, Serbia, Bulgaria, Greece, Albania5
Malawi118,484Zambia, Tanzania, Mozambique3
Mali1,240,192Algeria, Niger, Burkina Faso, Ivory Coast, Guinea, Senegal, Mauritania7
Moldova33,846Romania, Ukraine2
Mongolia1,566,500China, Russia2
Artsakh[c]11,458Armenia, Azerbaijan, Iran3
Nepal147,181China, India2
Niger1,267,000Libya, Chad, Nigeria, Benin, Burkina Faso, Mali, Algeria7
Paraguay406,752Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia3
Rwanda26,338Uganda, Tanzania, Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo4
San Marino[d]61Italy1
Serbia88,361Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Macedonia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Albania(viaKosovo and Metohija[c])8
Slovakia49,035Austria, Czech Republic, Poland, Ukraine, Hungary5
South Ossetia[c]3,900Georgia, Russia2
South Sudan619,745Sudan, Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Central African Republic6
Swaziland17,364Mozambique, South Africa2
Switzerland41,284France, Germany, Liechtenstein, Austria, Italy5
Tajikistan143,100Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, China4
Transnistria[c]4,163Moldova, Ukraine2
Turkmenistan[a]488,100Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, Iran4
Uganda241,038Kenya, South Sudan, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, Tanzania5
Uzbekistan449,100Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Afghanistan, Turkmenistan5
Vatican City[d]0.44Italy1
West Bank[b][c]5,655Israel, Jordan2
Zambia752,612Democratic Republic of the Congo, Tanzania, Malawi, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana, Namibia, Angola8
Zimbabwe390,757South Africa, Botswana, Zambia, Mozambique4

[a] Has a coastline on the saltwater Caspian Sea | [b] Has a coastline on the saltwater Dead Sea | [c] Disputed region with limited international recognition | [d] Landlocked by just one country | [e] Not fully recognized

See Also